FranconiaAfter the breakdown of the Roman border security Salian Franks and Rhine Franks expanded isolated to the south. The Merovingian Clovis united the Frankish tribes and created the Frankish Empire. The baptism of Clovis was of great importance for the further history of Europe, since the Franconian kingdom, from which France and Germany were to emerge from centuries, was christianized with its conversion to the Catholic faith.
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) was fought between Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel. It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours. The Franks were victorious. Later Christian chroniclers and pre-20th century historians praised Charles Martel as the champion of Christianity, characterizing the battle as the decisive turning point in the struggle against Islam, a struggle which preserved Christianity as the religion of Europe.
The Frankish empire experienced its greatest expansion under the Carolingian Charlemagne. Called the "Father of Europe" (pater Europae), Charlemagne united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Church. Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire.
From the 10th century the Duchy of Franconia was formed. The Franconian Circle from 1500 included only the eastern part of the historical Duchy of Franconia.
By connecting Bavaria with the Napoleonic France, most of the Franconian Circle fell in 1806 to Bavaria. In the Act of Confederation (Rheinbundakte), the zoning was enshrined.
Today, the term Franconia (German: Franken) commonly refers to the eastern part of the historic Duchy of Franconia in Germany, mainly represented by the Bavarian administrative districts of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken, capital city: Würzburg), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken, capital city: Ansbach), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken, capital city: Bayreuth). Due to the respective local East Franconian German dialects, the adjacent northeastern parts of the Heilbronn-Franken region in Baden-Württemberg, parts of Thuringia south of the Rennsteig ridge, and a small part of Hesse (Gersfeld) also count as Franconian regions. The two largest cities of Franconia are Nuremberg and Würzburg. Though located on the southeastern periphery of the area, the Nuremberg metropolitan area is often identified as the economic and cultural centre of Franconia. Franconia (just like France) is named after the Germanic tribe of the Franks. This tribe played a major role after the breakdown of the Roman Empire and colonised large parts of medieval Europe.
Bamberg Bayreuth Franconian Switzerland Hohenlohe Nuremberg Rothenburg ob der Tauber Würzburg